"Cultural imperialism" and "cultural diplomacy"
"Cultural imperialism" and "cultural diplomacy"
"Cultural imperialism" and "cultural
imperialism” and “cultural diplomacy” are sufficiently young, but it concerns
only word combinations. Mankind always tries to chose definitions to different
phenomena, in particular in sphere of politics, in such way the words
“ideology”, “myth”, “propaganda” have appeared.
and cultural diplomacy can be considered just as more or less aggressive method
of propaganda activity.
The process of
clearance of relationship between journalism and propaganda is as two
instruments of cultural diplomacy and cultural imperialism.
What is the aim of
cultural diplomacy and cultural imperialism: forming of political regimes,
decision of some economical problems or something else? A large use of
considering definitions makes doubts that the aim of spreading ideas can be
contain in one word. Most probably it is a complex of aims. But what politics
is more successful? “Whip” politics or “cake” politics?
New epoch, epoch of
globalization, epoch of powerful mass media has opened new opportunities for
propaganda. A man is grasped from TV every day; the material chosen by
journalists has turned out in a stream of huge amount of information. “It is
[TV] the crucial source of information about the outside world”. (Negrine op.
Cit., ibid., p. 100). Naturally that if even journalists have no enough time
for interpretation of the information, what hopes may be for average spectator
to interpret this information correctly. “TV is a “heavily selected
interpretation of events” (R. Hoggart “Bad news”. London, 1976, p.x.). In the
stream of the information a spectator managed by own prejudices and moral
brought from without is building from the information knots a picture of his
own world. People received the opportunity to know so many things without
learning anything. At the sense level a person understands that he is
manipulated (probably because of that spectator’s appreciation of journalists
are so low). From the other side the information containing burning topics of
the day, sharply and easily for understanding given, wakes up in a person so
powerful impulse which it’s very difficult not to be obeyed. As never before a
man has become such unprotected against foreign influence, the question is what
ideology will be more correct key for this or that country. From the other side
despite that a man has learned to get over large distances for a short time,
people have not became closer one another. It may be called “the theory of
unknown people”. Unknown people are making clothes for us, selling foods,
unknown people are defending us as a Police, unknown people are teaching our
children, building our houses. When we are traveling by bus or by plane our
lives are in the hands of unknown people. Why not to let these unknown people
to take possessions of our minds (through TV and sound speakers)?
May be supposed
that this space being free from critical interpretation in human consciousness
offers the opportunity for enforcing of culture (in context of cultural
imperialism). But aforementioned statement has reverse side as well. Since the
borders between that as supposed is personal and private and that is not so,
have no the same sense as were before, people have worked out the immunity
against information aggressiveness.
The opportunity of
comparison may have its influence; access to large amount of information let
people to compare thrusting ideas with the reality. Thus the slogan “Dreamland
is good because it is wonderful” is not working any more.
Before the World
War II in world politics only 10 countries played essential part. After the War
practically all countries began to play their parts in the world politics.
Economical and political reasons have come to the situation when the ideology
has become the well developed science. Cultural imperialism as well as cultural
diplomacy have appeared in the result of development of ideology and
propaganda. Differentiation of ideology, foundation of politics-ideological
complexes, access of scientists to practical politics (J. Kennedy, T.
Kissinger) and taking part of scientists in creation of ideological systems as well
as organization of expert centers in this field - all these resulted in
foundation of whole system of measures on foreign policy, particularly in
A needful influence
using rude methods of cultural imperialism can be hardly have an affect,
countries at which the cultural imperialism can be aimed have too probable
chance of maneuver. Cultural diplomacy and cultural imperialism as a part of
ideological war became a strategic weapon using a subtle instruments of
influence. Perhaps Chechen War became one of the failures of cultural
imperialism. Here should be mentioned that religious factor has played an
important part. It is one of the reason that confirms impossibility of rude
influence can be applicable.
It may be supposed
that a peace after the war in Chechen, long-drawn-out Israel - Palestine
conflict and Desert fox, is in condition of sufficient fragile balance, that
can be ground for conclusion that cultural imperialism isn’t applicable at all,
since it would directed at a country playing an insignificant part in world
politics, and would be identified in time and met by opposite measures,
consequences might be tragic.
On the contrary
cultural diplomacy is the war without victims. To avoid any impact of cultural
diplomacy a country can only in case of the isolation from foreign world is
available (Iraq, North Korea). Since that it is one of the sign of the
totalitarian state, but it’s not excluded that the regime will aim its powerful
ideological machine at its people. It’s all the same for the cultural
imperialism but only within the limits of one state. If one of the purposes of
cultural imperialism in foreign policy would be the spreading of a political
regime, so in case of totalitarian country the aim of propaganda, creation of
myths, ideology became in general the support of a regime. Too much energy must
be spent for the support of information units.
cultural imperialism as well as cultural diplomacy is aimed by one country or a
group of countries at other country. Sometimes instruments of political
influence are aimed at population of the own state, for example at
representatives of a large group of national minority. In this case the use of
aggressive methods of cultural imperialism can not be acceptable, since in this
way a serious national conflict can be provoked and the chain of ones has
flushed within the territory of the former USSR in the beginning of 90-th
including economical reasons in regular spreading of the information have occurred.
Needs in instrument of selecting of this information have came. In practice it
could be realized together with the development of technique of printing of
books in XV - XVI centuries, when in Europe the first periodical press
appeared. Journalism became a special type of activity. Propaganda started its
development earlier: the method of influence upon the opponent, social
political instrument of classes. The “relationship between paper and reader was
this being changed from the ideal one of a tutorial and intellectual nature, to
one of a market character”. (A.J. Lee “The Origins of the Popular Press 1855 -
1914, London, 1976, p. 121).
Journalism may be
non-connected with politics, but propaganda can not. As a powerful weapon
propaganda always aspires to enlarge an application of its instrument: the word
was added by a text in writing. (Pamphlets, leaflets of the time of the
Peasant’s War in Germany, Pugachyov’s letters).
from the moment of its birth has grasped 3 functions. The first one is the
selecting and lighting of the facts of every day life, the second function is
the spreading of appraisals and minds and the third one is different shows.
The complication of
relationship of such definitions as journalism and propaganda is determined by
that the journalism is more special definition regarding to propaganda. The
phenomenon of journalism has many senses. The periodical press has wider sphere
of interests than propaganda. It includes every day informing about facts and
actual events. In this respect propaganda is a part of periodical presswork.
From the other side journalism is the complexity of technical means of
circulation of information messages and materials of propaganda (newspapers,
TV, radio) and at this way journalism is one of the instruments of propaganda
machine. Propaganda has its own distinguishing features in application of means
and weapons of its influence. In its arsenal there are placards, leaflets,
photos, means of mass media. Journalism addresses only a large auditorium and
its activity can be determined by system of means specially foreseen for
circulation of its publications. Propaganda is an ever-lasting companion of the
periodical press; therefore many journalists are propagandists as well. Even in
the media there are many propaganda materials or materials related to
propaganda, are beyond from periodical press. Newspapers are publishing
official governmental messages; TV canals are carrying out direct translations
from meetings. This propaganda can not be related to own creations of
journalists, therefore for calling of the propaganda, which is professional
work of journalists, can be used the term “Journalism propaganda”.
has its an important mobilizing influence upon people and stimulates social
activity as well. It seems that journalism is called as “literature made in a
hurry” and in comparison with classical fiction literature it (journalism) must
have less influence. A fiction literature uses more sharp, more bright and
figurative word. But journalism, probably because of effect of participation,
has the strongest “impulse” influence upon minds, directions and behavior of
people. Perhaps one of the secrets of this influence is the unique combination
of means, which are available for journalism. Reality of the fact which has
been taken from the present day plus magnetic strength of an idea plus
understandable word and representation. Disappearance of one of these three
above-mentioned means destroys a complex of the modern journalism. For periodical
press a conjunction of three components: energy, propaganda and publicity, -
may be compulsory, since it’s the strong factor of influence upon a social
closely bound with a science ideology. The ideology partly is the method of
thinking which taken from without as well as propaganda serves for ideology can
not contain such idealism definitions as truth, objectivity, impartiality.
According to its character propaganda is tendentious but not objective.
scientists have been tried to prove Scientific features of propaganda through
the term “ the true of an idea or a mind” recognizing by that the right of
elite, making up socials myths and ideology, to operate with human
Though propaganda always
brings to a man a moral and directions ab extra. The question is at what degree
a man can be operated and how many different ideologies are aimed at a man, has
a person the opportunity of a choice in that - what illusion can be used?
It should be mentioned
that mass media at the definite point must support political power as well as
state structure. “So long as newspapers remain cure of political authority,
they are beyond criticism; once they challenge that authority, they suffer the
full force of its reaction” (R. Negrine “Politics and the Mass Media in
Britain”. London. 1994. P. 47 - 48).
Is a hamburger the
part of national politics? Who is more popular: Uncle Sam or Mickey Mouse? Can
Michael Jackson, for example, to inculcate a love to American culture? These
questions could be analyzed through the theory of creation of myths.
It’ s necessary to
mention that creation of myths as well as ideology and propaganda comes
sufficiently closely to determination of cultural diplomacy. If the following
interpretation of creation of myths would available: as the process of
constructing of the image system with the subject presented as essential for a
person social reality, in this case the difference with the subject of cultural
diplomacy is not so large. In case of making the question more simply and to
determine the aim of a myth is to provide the opportunity of orientation, the
difference with the purposes of cultural diplomacy becomes less. The problem is
as usual since in context of political science (Ortega, Gasset) myth is bound
closely with political elite which is working out political myths spreading
upon all around. In myth there is not limits, but cultural diplomacy is aimed
at determined real subject. In this case myths making up by cultural diplomacy
are concerning the creation of myths as a part is related to whole object.
aforementioned it may be concluded that a numerous industry of amusements or
“pop industry” can not bring all load of cultural diplomacy. Positive
impressions of culture of a state must be formed in development. The word “
diplomacy” supposes not impulses but a process of thinking. The impulses are
corresponding to mass industry and love for popular music is going away so
quickly as a feeling of satiety after eating a hamburger.
Besides that since
cultural diplomacy is leaning for the support of the elite and the influence
must be extended to the most intelligent and educated population therefore the
instruments must be delicate. For example the song of Elton John “Yellow Brick
Road” never can inculcate the love to England but if the sound track would be
provided by representation of the Big Ben, House of Parlament and other great
creations of British architecture, an excellent result might be achieved.
Thus for the
cultural diplomacy it would be more reasonable to sell the TV picture “Variety
Fair” with damage than to earn much on a pop-star concert.
It can be supposed
that if the pop-industry is always aimed at earning money, cultural diplomacy
has to work with damage for itself and able to make money only in indirect way.
In general the distinguishing feature of pop-industry is internationalism, for
example, the Disneyland is available not only in the USA but the Freedom
Stature can be seen only in the United States of America. Instruments of
cultural diplomacy as well as cultural imperialism must be unique.
Why the rude
methods of cultural imperialism have not been refused at all? Probably in this
period these are more operative. In one of Eric Berne’s book the following
example was described: when grasshoppers were offered to two groups of people
and the first group was made to eat the insects up and the other group was just
offered to test them. In result those people who were made to eat the insects,
in general, called the taste qualities of grasshoppers as good. The other group
which just tested of its own free will said negatively about its tastes.
Eric Berne explained
this case by one of the quality of the human psychic: when something is imposed
to a person our mind makes us to love it. In any case for a some time. The
other reaction when this influence is finishing. In the time of “the cold war”
many Western radio programs can be heard in the USSR, such as “The Voice of
America”, “Radio Liberty”. After the disintegration of the USSR very
tendentious “The Voice of America” became non-interesting and lost its
By the way it did
not enlarge the sympathy to the USA. It may be too simple illustration.
For example can be
used a powerful agitation USSR’s influence upon the former members of East
system and what it resulted in afterwards. All examples have one common
feature: an action always turns by opposite action. Even an action of political
pressure such as Soviet tanks in Czechoslovakia, Afghanistan and Chechen,
American B 52 over Vietnam and rackets Patriot over Baghdad. Regardless of that
how many years or days mankind has come without wars, the methods of rude
influence will be continued in future The question of effectiveness of these
measures is opened.
In the time of
running of Napoleon the newspapers of France started to describe this event
beginning from the titles such as “ the Blood-thirsty Tyrant Got away from a
Cage” and this events were finished in articles as “The Emperor is taking his
throne”. This particularity of journalism has been available till present time.
that which methods have been applied: mild or heavy, cultural politics must be
understood by them for whom it has been carried on. Therefore it’s hardly to
say about cultural imperialism, for example, provided by CNN in respect of
Russia or China, or Japan. There an English speech can not been understood. In
general, a large ethnic groups in respect of their language are very
conservative, feeling itself in its consciousness as a part of a huge language
group. In this connection one American saying is very interesting: a person who
speaks one language is a citizen, a person streaking two languages is an
immigrant, three languages is a vagrant. When it’s known before that the words
won’t be understood a statement can be impressed by gestures (Khrushchov’s shoe
in the session of UN) or by understandable images (Iraq tanks in Kuwait).
If the military
conflicts would be left , since state and commence electronic mass media must
lead determined policy, because on the contrary (TV is a “heavily selected
interpretation of events” (R. Hoggart “Bad news”. London, 1976, p.x.)), and
cultural imperialism is becoming more and more active. In case of considering a
journalism as an important transmitter of state propaganda or ideology, in the
most powerful and developed countries the chain: government - journalist -
audience won’t be full because of principle of pluralism, equality of political
factors and institutions. Besides that since the competition fights for
audience the modern mass media lost their opportunity for strategic planning.
For instance even the USA has worked at the image of its country shown the
interrogation of the USA President. For the politics of the USA this fact is
not positive. But the modern regulation of mass media played here their part.
Perhaps, the commerce protects people from any kinds of imperialism. “International
bodies and international competitive pressures are having an impact on the
development of national structures of Broadcasting” (Negrine. Op.cit. p. 210).
As a summary of
this work several general moments can be mentioned. At present time an
opportunity of the manipulation with human consciousness, is especially real as
never before since a spectator (listener) receives a huge amount of information which can not
From the other side
an opportunity of influence became weaker because of the increasing opportunity
for comparison, the information became more assessable and the one of the
particular feature of foreign policy became taking part of almost all countries
of the world. Therefore a chance of the influence upon the more non-developed
countries using the powerful methods of the cultural imperialism are minimized.
The opportunity of
defend of oneself from the power influence has increased proportionally to
increasing of the influence of the world community where all countries take
In this work the
statements interpreting the conjunction between journalism and propaganda
(weapon of any foreign and inside influence). However at present time
journalists are being more interested in sensations, show and dynamics of
programs. Therefore means of mass media which without doubt multi - level
structures can exist for means received from advertise sale: thus they are less
interested in social orders. In this situation commerce can protect an audience
from ideological influence. Though “ for some observers the globalization of
journalism carries with it the threat of cultural imperialism - the
dissemination across the planet of a journalism dominated largely by North
American (read CNN) values, agendas, and ideological assumptions”. (Brian
McNair “News and Journalism in the UK”. London, 1994, p. 188.
in contradistinction to pressure influence of cultural imperialism, probably
must influence upon elite classes negatively. Since the educated people grasp
rude propaganda methods at once and in many cases able to separate information
from ideology and infotainment as well. Thus rude methods of industry will not
understanding it can be supposed that well done programm on Discovery Canal
about, for example, American Air Forces of the World War II had more influence
effect than the a direct translation of CNN about bombardment of Baghdad.
In conclusion it ‘s
desirable to impress a hope that the rude methods has been finished at least in
respect of actual participants of the world community.
Book A.J. Lee
(1976) “The Origins of Popular Press. 1855 - 1914”, London, p. 121
Book R. Negrine
(1994) “Politics and the Mass Media in Britain”, London, p. 47 – 48
Book R. Hoggart
“Bad News”, (1976), London, p.x.
Book Brian McNair
(1994) “News and Journalism in the UK”, London, p. 188
Book A. Briggs,
(1979) “Governing the BBC”, London, p. 211