1901 and 1906, several comprehensive exhibitions were held in Paris, making the
work of Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, and Paul Cézanne widely
accessible for the first time. For the painters who saw the achievements of
these great artists, the effect was one of liberation and they began to
experiment with radical new styles. Fauvism was the first movement of this
modern period, in which color ruled supreme.
advent of Modernism if often dated by the appearance of the Fauves in Paris at
the Salon d'Automne in 1905. Their style of painting, using non-naturalistic
colors, was one of the first avant-garde developments in European art. They
greatly admired van Gogh, who said of his own work: ``Instead of trying to
render what I see before me, I use color in a completely arbitrary way to
express myself powerfully''. The Fauvists carried this idea further,
translating their feelings into color with a rough, almost clumsy style.
Matisse was a dominant figure in the movement; other Fauvists included
Vlaminck, Derain, Marquet, and Rouault. However, they did not form a cohesive
group and by 1908 a number of painters had seceded to Cubism.
was a short-lived movement, lasting only as long as its originator, Henri
Matisse (1869-1954), fought to find the artistic freedom he needed. Matisse had
to make color serve his art, rather as Gauguin needed to paint the sand pink to
express an emotion. The Fauvists believed absolutely in color as an emotional
force. With Matisse and his friends, Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958) and
André Derain (1880-1954), color lost its descriptive qualities and
became luminous, creating light rather than imitating it. They astonished
viewers at the 1905 Salon d'Automne: the art critic Louis Vauxcelles saw their
bold paintings surrounding a conventional sculpture of a young boy, and
remarked that it was like a Donatello ``parmi les fauves'' (among the wild
beasts). The painterly freedom of the Fauves and their expressive use of color
gave splendid proof of their intelligent study of van Gogh's art. But their art
seemed brasher than anything seen before.
its brief flourishing, Fauvism had some notable adherents, including Rouault,
Dufy, and Braque. Vlaminck had a touch of his internal moods: even if The
River (c. 1910; 60 x 73 cm (23 1/2 x 28 3/4 in)) looks at peace, we feel
a storm is coming. A self-professed ``primitive'', he ignored the wealth of art
in the Louvre, preferring to collect the African masks that became so important
to early 20th-century art.
also showed a primitive wildness in his Fauve period-- Charing Cross
Bridge (1906; 80 x 100 cm (32 x 39 in)) bestrides a strangely tropical
London-- though as he aged he quenched his fire to a classic calm. He shared a
studio with Vlaminck for a while and The River and Charing
Cross Bridge seem to share a vibrant power: both reveal an
unselfconscious use of color and shape, a delight in the sheer patterning of
things. This may not be profound art but it does give visual pleasure.
Для подготовки данной работы
были использованы материалы с сайта http://www.ibiblio.org/louvre/paint/