Russians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to
education is stated in the constitution of the Russia Federation. It’s
ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher
education establishment. It is also ensured by the development of
extramural and evening courses and the system of state scholarship and
Education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The
stages of compulsory schooling in Russia are: primary education for ages 6-
7 to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive,
and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of
secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay
at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together
comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum» of
academic subjects, such as…
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which
offer programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a
technical field, or a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a
gymnasium one can go into higher education. All applicants must take
competitive exam. Higher education institution, that is institutes or
universities, offer a 5-years programme of academic subjects for
undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course and
writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidates degree or a doctoral
Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are
in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has
a number of faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate
and doctoral degrees.
The system of higher and secondary education in Russia is going trough
a transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to
decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial
mechanism, to give more academic freedom to faculties and students. All
secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been
funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private fee-paying
primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying
All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they
are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are
17 or 18. Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence
tests. There were different types of state secondary schools and at the age
of 11 children went to different schools in accordance of with the results
of the tests.
State schools are divided into the following types: - Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools are usually those who show a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools now also have some technical courses. - Technical schools. Some children go to technical schools. Most courses there are either commercial or technical. - Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in working with there hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical schools and learn some trade. - Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine all types of secondary education. They have physic, chemistry, biology laboratories, machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography, history and art departments, commercial and domestic courses.
There are also many schools which the State doesn’t control. They are
private schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them
are boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.
After leaving school many young people go to colleges or further
education. Those who become students at Colleges of Technology (called
“Techs”) come from different schools at different ages between 15 and 17.
The lectures at such colleges, each an hour long, start at 8,15 and end at
4,45 in the afternoon.
From the end of World War II the state in the United Kingdom provides a
full range of free educational facilitates. Those parents who send their
children to private institution, and could afford it, are free to do so.
The organization of state schooling is not centralized as in the most
European countries. Firstly, there is no prescribed curriculum. Secondly,
the types of school available and the age rangers for which they cater vary
in different parts of country. In each area Local educational Authority is
responsible for education. At any publicly-manicured school no tuition fees
are payable. State schooling in the UK is financed partly by the
Governmental and partly by local rates.
Schooling is voluntary under the age of 5 but there is some free
nursery school education before that age. Primary education takes place in
infant schools for pupils ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools
(from 8 to 11 years). Some areas have different systems in which middle
schools replace junior schools and take pupils ages from 9 to 11 years.
Secondary education has been available in Britain since 1944. It is
compulsory up to the age of 16, and pupils can stay at school voluntarily
up to three years longer.
Until 1964 children took an “eleven plus” exam at the age of 11. At
this exam they were selected, or «streamed» according to their current
level of academic course for the top 20 percent; modern schools provided a
general education with a practical bias. There were also a few technical
schools-academic equals of grammar schools but specialized in technical
In 1965 non-selective comprehensive schools were introduced. Most local
education authorities were have now completely changed over to
At the age of 16 pupils take school-leaving examinations in several
subjects at the Ordinary level. The exam used to be conducted by eight
independent examining boards, most of them connected with the university.
This examination could also be taken by candidates at a further education
establishment. This exam was called the General Certificate of Education
(GCE). Pupils of comprehensive school had taken the examination called the
Certificate of Secondary Education either with or instead of the GCE.
A GCE of Advanced (“A”) level was taken two years after the Ordinary
level exam. It was the standard for entrance to university and to many
forms of professional training. In 1988 both examinations were replaced by
the more or less uniform General Certificate of Secondary Education.
The private sector is running parallel to the state system of
education. There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. Most
private schools are single-sex until the age of 16. More and more parents
seem prepared to take on the formidable extra cost of the education. The
reason is the belief that social advantages are gained from attending a
certain school. The most expansive day or boarding schools in Britain are
exclusive public schools like Eton college for boys and St. James’ school
There are over 90 universities in GB. They are divided into three
types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities),
in the 19th century universities, such as London and Manchester
universities, and the new universities. Some years ago there were also
polytechnics. After graduating from polytechnic a student got a degree, but
it was not a university degree. 31 formers polytechnics were given
university status in 1992.
Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Art or Science.
Most degree courses at universities last three years, language courses 4
years (including year spent aboard). Medicine and dentistry courses are
longer (5-7 years).
Students may receive grants from the Local Education Authority to help
pay for books, accommodation, transport, and food. This grant depends on
the income of their parents.
Most students live away from home, in flats of halls of residence.
Students don’t usually have a job during term time because the lessons
called lectures, seminars, classes of tutorials (small groups), are full
time. However, many students now have to work in the evenings.
University life is considered «an experience». The exams are
competitive but the social life and living away from home are also
important. The social life is excellent with a lot of clubs, parties,
There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges. Colleges
offer courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some
professions connected with medicine.