Citizens of Russia have the right to education which
is guaranteed by the Constitution. The public educational system in our country
incorporates pre-school, general school, specialized secondary and higher
Pre-school consists of kindergartens and
crèches. Children there learn reading, writing and arithmetic. But pre-school
education isn't compulsory - children can get it at home.
Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17
years of age.
The main link in the system of education is the
general school which prepares the younger generation for life and work in
modern production. There are various types of schools: general secondary
schools, schools specializing in a certain subject, high schools, lyceums and
so on. Tuition in most of them is free of charge, but some new types of schools
are fee-paying. The term of study in a general secondary school is 11 years and
consists of primary, middle and upper stages. At the middle stage of a
secondary school the children learn the basic laws of nature and society at the
lessons of history, algebra, literature, physics and many others.
After 9th form pupils have to sit for examinations.
Also they have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a general secondary
school and enrolling in a specialized secondary or vocational school.
Persons who finish the general secondary school,
receive a secondary education certificate, giving them the right to enter any
higher educational establishment. Entrance examinations are held in July and
August. Institutions are headed by rectors; the faculties are headed by the
deans. One has to study in the institute for 5 years. Higher educational
institutions train students in one or several specializations.
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