Dyck, Sir Anthony van (1599-1641). Apart from Rubens, the
greatest Flemish painter of the 17th century. In 1609 he began his
apprenticeship with Hendrick van Balen in his native Antwerp and he was
exceptionally precocious. Although he did not become a master in the painters'
guild until 1618, there is evidence that he was working independently for some
years before this, even though this was forbidden by guild regulations.
Probably soon after graduating he entered Rubens's workshop. Strictly speaking
he should not be called Rubens's pupil, as he was an accomplished painter when
he went to work for him. Nevertheless the two years he spent with Rubens were
decisive and Rubens's influence upon his painting is unmistakable, although ven
Dyck's style was always less energetic.
1620 van Dyck went to London, where he spent a few months in the service of
James I (1566-1625), then in 1621 to Italy, where he travelled a great deal,
and toned down the Flemish robustness of his early pictures to create the
refined and elegant style which remained characteristic of his work for the
rest of his life. His great series of Baroque portraits of the Genoese
aristocracy established the `immortal' type of nobleman, with proud mien and
slender figure. The years 1628-32 were spent mainly at Antwerp.
1632 until his death he was in England -- except for visits to the Continent --
as painter to Charles I, from whom he received a knighthood. During these years
he was occupied almost entirely with portraits. Perhaps the strongest evidence
of his power as a portraitist is the fact that today we see Charles I and his
court through van Dyck's eyes. It is customary to accuse van Dyck of invariably
flattering his sitters, but not all his patrons would have agreed. When the
Countess of Sussex saw the portrait (now lost) van Dyck painted of her she felt
"very ill-favourede" and "quite out of love
with myself, the face is so bige and so fate that it pleases me not at all. It
lokes lyke on of the windes puffinge -- but truly I think tis lyke the
Dyck's influence on English portraiture has been profound and lasting:
Gainsborough, in particular, revered him, but he was an inspiration to many
others until the early 20th century, when society portraiture ceased to be a
major form of artistic expression. He also painted religious and mythological
subjects, however, and a surprising facet of his activity is revealed by his
landscapes in water-color (British Museum, London). His Iconography
(1645) is a series of etchings or engravings of his famous contemporaries. Van
Dyck etched some of the plates himself, and many more were engraved after his
drawings and oil sketches.
Для подготовки данной работы
были использованы материалы с сайта http://www.ibiblio.org/louvre/paint/