Criminology is an advanced, theoretical field of study. It can be
defined as the study of crime, the causes of crime (etiology), the meaning of
crime in terms of law, and community reaction to crime. Not too long ago,
criminology separated from its mother discipline, sociology, and although there
are some historical continuities, it has since developed habits and methods of
thinking about crime and criminal behavior that are uniquely its own.
Theory is a complex subject in its own right. Criminological theory
is no exception; it also tends to be complex. Some definitions of terms might
help to understand the field:
Criminology - the science of crime rates, individual and group
reasons for committing crime, and community or societal reactions to crime.
*Criminologist - a person who studies criminology; not to be
confused with a "criminalist" who reconstructs a crime scene or works
with crime scene evidence for forensic purposes.
*Applied criminology - the art of creating typologies,
classifications, predictions, and especially profiles of criminal offenders,
their personalities and behavior patterns.
*Theory construction - an informed, creative endeavor which connects
something known with something unknown; usually in a measurable way.
*Theory building - efforts to come up with formal, systematic,
logical, and mathematical ways in which theories are constructed.
*Theoretical Integration - efforts to come up with grand,
overarching theories which apply to all types of crime and deviance.
*Theoretical Specification - efforts to figure out the details of a
theory, how the variables work together; usually associated with a belief that
many, competing theories are better than integrated efforts.
*Theoretical Elaboration - efforts to figure out the implications of
a theory, what other variables might be added to the theory; also associated
with the belief that theory competition is better than theoretical integration.
*Variables - the building blocks of theories; things that vary;
things you can have more or less of; e.g., crime rates, being more or less
criminally inclined (criminality).
Criminologists use words a certain way to indicate relationships
between causes (independent variables) and effects (dependent variables). Here
are some general guidelines that might help when reading some actual writing of
*"varies with" -- this means things fluctuate together; as
one thing goes up, the other thing goes down; usually used to describe a possible
inverse relationship but also used to describe a direct relationship.
*"where..." -- while not technically a verb, this word
usually indicates a feedback relationship, where things go up or down in
response to one another. Often, but not always, the case involves an important
Z factor which moderates, distorts, or confounds the relationship. Relationals
like "varies", "fluctuates", "predominates",
"associated with", and "overrepresented by" are usually
found when the theorist is dealing with socio-demographic variables, like age,
race, or social class.
*"seems to be" -- this wishy-washy language usually means
that the theorist suspects a weak relationship, probably way less than 50%.
*"tends" -- this might mean, but not always, that there
are important Z factors which are antecedent, intervening, or contingent; that
is, that come before, in the middle, or after an X and Y relationship. Or, it
may be a cojoint relationship.
*"is conducive to" -- this usually means that the cause is
a mysterious, unknown construct; typically found in highly abstract theories
involving words like anomie, relative deprivation, norms, or controls. In some
cases, it refers to a confounding or contextual relationship.
The HISTORY of criminology dates back to Lombroso, whom many regard
as the father of criminology. Others claim that Phrenology (studying bumps on
the head) better represents the origins of the science. Even today, there is
still an interest in the biological causes of criminal behavior.
Anthropology is the most humanistic of the sciences and the most
scientific of the humanities. (Alfred Kroeber)
Between 1750 and 1850, two popular fields of scientific practice
consisting of the PHYSIOGNOMISTS and PHRENOLOGISTS tried to prove that there
were links between the propensity to engage in criminal behavior and unusual
physical appearance (mostly the face, ears, or eyes) and the shape of the skull
(bumps on the head being an indicator of dominant brain areas). The
physiognomists studied facial appearance and the phrenologists studied bumps on
the head. Both fields of study were quite influential at the time, and are
lumped together in history books as the area of CRIMINAL ANTHROPOLOGY, early
biological perspectives, the legacy of demonology (ugliness as the mark of
evil), or in the 20th century, known as constitutionalism (the study of human
physique, or constitution of the body). The search for a constitutionally
determined "criminal man" continued up until 1950.
Physiognomy is the making of judgments about people's character from
the appearance of their faces or countenance. Its founder was J. Baptiste della
Porte (1535-1615) who studied cadavers, and associated small ears, bushy
eyebrows, small noses, and large lips with criminal offenders. Johan Kaspar
Lavater (1741-1801) was another physiognomist who associated
"shifty-eyed" people who had weak chins and arrogant noses with
criminal behavior. No serious criminologist today gives much credence to
Phrenology is the study of the external characteristics of a
person's skull as an indicator of his or her personality, abilities, or general
propensities. Some bumps on the skull indicate lower brain functions (like
combativeness). Other bumps represent higher functions and propensities (like
morality). Crime occurs when the bumps indicate that the lower propensities are
winning out over the higher propensities. Phrenologists believed that with
mental exercise, a criminal might be reformed. The most eminent phrenologists
were Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) and his pupil, John Gaspar Spurzheim
(1776-1832). The phrenologists turned out to be not all that off in where they
thought certain brain functions (35 of them showing up on bumps) were located. The
destructiveness center, for example, which is located right behind the ear
above Darwin's point, is pronounced in 17% of criminals. Other bumps, in the
back of the head, turned out to be pronouncements of the Amygdala and
Hippocampus, where tumors are associated with criminal behavior (as in the
Texas sniper, Charles Whitman). The general rule is that any abnormality in the
back of the head is bad ("back is bad"). The association between
other bumps (on the head) and moral (or intellectual) functions were badly mistaken
by phrenologists (such as Gall), but in his defense, research methods had not
been well-developed by 1835 (note this early date; some regard Gall as the
Criminal anthropology is the name usually associated with the work
of Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) and his followers who performed autopsies on
criminals and found they had characteristics similar to primitive humans,
monkeys, and chimpanzees. Some of the anomalies (differences or defects) found
among criminals included head width, height, degree of receding forehead, head
circumference, head symmetry, and so on. Lombroso had his Goring (1870-1919), a
scientist dedicated to disproving Lombroso. While Goring found height and
weight differences, he concluded there was no such thing as a "born
criminal" based on physical inferiority. The idea of degeneracy lived on,
however, and criminal anthropology in the U.S. was spearheaded by a diffuse
group of 8-9 degenerationists who were active between 1881 and 1911 (e.g.
MacDonald's Criminology , Benedikt's Anatomical Studies upon Brains of
Criminals, Talbot's Degeneracy, Lydston's The Diseases of Society, and Parsons'
Responsibility for Crime; Fink's Causes of Crime, Haller's Eugenics are good
secondary sources.) In 1911, Maurice Parmelee (whom some regard as an early
founder, if not the founder, of American criminology) began rejecting
Cesare Lombroso (1836-1909) is known as the father of modern
criminology, and the chief historical figure in the Italian positivist
movement. His works include:
Lombroso popularized the notion of a "born criminal" which
represents an extreme statement of biological determinism which had great
influence well into the 20th Century (and for the founding of criminology) even
though much of this thinking is now outdated except for the recurring idea that
criminals have particular physiognomic defects or deformities. Physiognomy is
the art of estimating character from the features of the face or the form of
the body. Most students are familiar with his checklist of physiognomic
Unusually short or tall height
Small head, but large face
Small and sloping forehead
Wrinkles on forehead and face
Large sinus cavities or bumpy face
Large, protruding ears
Bumps on head, particularly the Destructiveness Center above left
Protuberances (bumps) on head, in back of head and around ear
High check bones
Bushy eyebrows, tending to meet across nose
Large eyesockets, but deepset eyes
Beaked nose (up or down) or flat nose
Fleshy lips, but thin upper lip
Mighty incisors, abnormal teeth
Small or weak chin
Sloping shoulders, but large chest
Pointy or snubbed fingers or toes
Tatoos on body
Constitutionalism, or body-type theories, became popular in the
1930s, mostly on account of the work of Ernest Hooton, a Harvard
anthropologist. He studied thousands of criminals and noncriminals from eight
different states, concluding that criminals are inferior to civilians in all
physical respects. There were also racist overtones to his work because he said
the Negroid forehead was a perfect example of a criminal forehead. In the
1940s, the work of William Sheldon shifted attention away from adults to the
physiques of juvenile delinquents. Sheldon produced an "Index of
Delinquency" based on three-way photographs which was used in many states
to determine if a child in trouble should be institutionalized or not.
Sheldon's approach is sometimes called somatotype theory. Sheldon's methods and
results were given considerable support by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck in the
1950s who found that narrow faces, wider chests, larger waists, and bigger
forearms were associated with 60% of delinquents and only 30% of
Sheldon's classification of physique and temperament (somatotype
theory) is as follows:
Endomorphic -- tendency to put on fat, soft roundness of body, short
tapering limbs, small bones, velvety skin; viscerotonic temperament, relaxed,
comfortable person, loves luxury, an extrovert.
Mesomorphic -- predominance of muscles, bone, and motor organs,
large trunk, heavy chest, large wrist and hands, lean rectangular outline;
somotonic or Dionysian temperament, active, assertive, aggressive,
Ectomorphic -- predominance of skin, lean, fragile, delicate body,
small bones, droppy shoulders, small face, sharp nose, fine hair; cerebrotonic
temperament, sensitive, distractible, insomnia, skin troubles, allergies.
Each person possesses the characteristics of all three types.
Sheldon therefore used three numbers, between 1 and 7, to indicate the extent
to which the three types were evident in each person. A person whose somatotype
is 7-1-4, for example, would have many endomorphic characteristics, very little
mesomorphic characteristics, and an average number of ectomorphic
characteristics. He found that the average institutionalized delinquent was a
3-5-2 somatotype. The Gluecks (always eclectic, or multiple factor, theorists)
found that the average adult criminal was a 2-6-3 somatotype, and that 60% of
delinquents were mesomorphs. Mesomorphy was associated with criminal behavior,
flying in the face of fitness gurus, like Charles Atlas, who was trying to
shape up Americans.
In contemporary times, ideas about physical appearance occasionally
show up in criminology. All the constitutionalists studied tattoos, for
example. They were never really able to make anything of it; they were just
there for the study; lots of criminals had them. Tattoo removal (as well as
plastic surgery) has found its way into a few correctional rehabilitation
programs (Kurtzberg et. al.. 1978). There's a whole subspecialty field that,
for lack of a better term, can be called the "physical attractiveness"
studies (Cavior & Howard 1973; Agnew 1984) which suggest that ugliness
really has got something to do with becoming a criminal.
There's no necessary relationship between criminal anthropology and
eugenics (the idea that a nation can save its stock by preventing reproduction
of the unfit - negative eugenics -- and simultaneously encourage the fit to
produce more offspring -- positive eugenics). A small number of criminal
anthropologists support the idea of eugenics; another, larger group strongly
rejects it. Almost all criminologists today would be appalled at the idea of
eugenics theory, yet it remains in the background of criminology as the field
tries to develop agenda-free information, and at one time (during the 1930s,
eugenics was taken quite seriously - more on this in the next lecture).
Physiognomy, or at least some bits of it, will sometimes find its
way into social psychology and criminal justice, in studies of attractiveness
and beauty, and in studies of jury lenience depending upon the physical look of
the defendant. This literature is not well-organized, and only appears to be of
sporadic interest to researchers.
Twin studies have also looked at physical similarities and
differences. Identical twins are more similar in their (criminal) behavior than
fraternal twins, however, no definitive conclusions can be drawn from twin
studies in general. Adoption studies is another promising area of research, but
again, strong causal statements are rare in the whole area of heredity-crime
The XYY chromosone syndrome became popular during the 1960s. People
with this condition tend to be tall supermales who often exhibit aggression and
violence. Some researchers have found that XYY types are more likely to have a
criminal record. Other observers note that the prison populations are filled
with fairly short people, a pattern noticed early on by physiognomists, who
also took an interest in height.
Galvanic skin response (the rate at which electricity travels across
the surface of the skin) also measures mesomorphy to some extent. Many
criminals have slower GSR rates, which means they are somewhat more impervious
to pain or at least may have a different neuromusculatory system.
It's difficult to describe a field as vast as anthropology or to
even begin listing all the inroads into criminology. When I majored in this as
an undergraduate, the choices were either physical or cultural anthropology,
and those are about the only choices you get at the undergraduate level, and if
you express an interest in crime or criminals, they tend to steer you towards
physical anthropology which studies bones (presumably so you'll make a good
crime scene investigator). However, the area of cultural or sociocultural
anthropology is a much larger field (see Benedict 1934 or Garbarino 1977), and
then there's symbolic anthropology (Douglas 1966), the field of social
anthropology, and all sorts of hard-to-classify kinds of anthropology like
Girard (1979). I'll try to explain two of the most popular contemporary
Mary Douglas' book Purity and Danger is probably one of the top ten
most influential books ever written in the last 500 years. It is about the
subject of ritual, and rituals are the ways societies and people mark out their
boundaries. There are many kinds of rituals: for purification, reconciliation,
renewal, purity, passage, and mourning, for example. Douglas is concerned with
purity rituals, which relate to the feeling of safety from dangers such as
crime. You might understand the idea as the notion that there are "lucky
charms" which protect you from danger, and there are plenty of theological
examples as well (the Ark of the Covenant; the Holy Grail), etc. Each person
also has their "bubble space" for self-protection, which is a kind of
purity ritual. The existence of an angry person in one's space is considered
dangerous, and everything on the margins (of society; one's environment) is
also considered strange or dangerous. When people do wrong things, they are
also polluting the purity of the environment, and pollution rules are not as
equivocal as moral rules. A pollution rule might call for the immediate
execution of a transgressor, for example, while a moral code might give them
the benefit of the doubt. Like others (Garfinkel 1967), Douglas is saying that
our criminal justice system as well as what we consider rights and wrongs are
determined by our underlying, inborn, ritualistic responses. We see criminals
as contaminating our world (like dirt). Justice provides no guarantee, but our
ritual impulses always come out.
Для подготовки данной работы были использованы
материалы с сайта http://referat.ru/