The Commonwealth of Australia is a self-government federal state. It has six states: new south Wales, Victoria, Queens land, south
Australia, western Australia and two internal territories. It is situated in the southwestern of the Pacific Ocean. The area of this country has 7000000
square kilometers. Australia is the largest island in the world and the smallest continent. The Dutch were the first Europeans to visit Australia. In
the 1770 the English captain James Cook discovered the East Coast of Australia. Nearly 20 millions people live in Australia. The capital of the country is
Canberra, this city become a capital in 1927. Federal government works in Canberra in the government buildings. There are no industrial plants in the
town. The population of Canberra is about 300 000 people. There are many sits in the city. They are the buildings of Australian academy of sings, the
Australian national university and others. There are two big industrial cities in Australia: Sydney and Melbourne. Australian climate is dry and warm.
Australia is situated in the Southern Hemisphere and that is why it has summer when we have winter. January is the hottest month in Australia.
Australia is separated from many countries. The animals in Australia have developed differently. They are interesting. You can see the
dingo, wild dog which killed others animals in night, the kangaroo and many parrots there. There are many and lakes in the country. Australia is an
industrial country. It has coil, nickel, zinc and gold. Australia is one of the most important produces of metals and minerals. It exports wool production,
meat, fruit and sugar. The Australia is situated near the ocean. Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane are the ports of the country. There are many universities,
theaters and museums in Australia. There are some political parties in Australia: the liberal party, the labor party and two socialist parties of
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on two large islands called the British Isles. The larger island is
Great Britain, which consists of three parts: England, Scotland and Wales. The smaller island is Ireland and there are about five thousand small islands.
The country’s shores are washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Irish Sea. The English channel separate Great Britain
from the continent.
The total area of the U.K. is 244.00 square kilometers with a population of 56 million. It is one of the most populated countries in
the world. The average density of population is very high: about 220 people per square kilometer. The greater part of the population is urban. About 80 percent
of people live in numerous towns and cities. More then seven million people live in London area. Very often the inhabitants of The United Kingdom and
Northern Ireland are called English.
The surface of the British Isles varies very mach. There are many mountains in Scotland, Wales and northwest of England but they are not
very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain. The northern part of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. Scotland is also famous
for its beautiful lakes, which are called Lochs.
The mountains in G.B. are not very high. There are many rivers in G.B., but they are not very long. The Themes is the deepest, the
longest and the most important river in England.
The climate of G.B. is mild. It is not very cold in winter and hot in summer. The average temperature in January is about 5C above
zero. February is the coldest month in the year. The summers are cool and rainy. July is the warmest month. There is much rain and flog in autumn and
winter. October is the rainiest month in the year.
United States of America
The USA is composed of 50 states. It occupies the central part of North American continent. It borders on Canada in the north and
on Mexico in the south.
The waters of the Atlantic Ocean wash the USA in the east and the waters of the Pacific Ocean wash the country in the west. The
Hawaiian Islands are in the Pacific Ocean. They became the 50th state of the USA in 1958. The total area of the country is 9000 square kilometers. The
population is more then 200 million people.
Washington is the capital of USA. English is the official language. The flag of the USA known as the “Stars and Stripes”.
The Rocky Mountains extend from Alaska through the USA to Mexico, but greater part of the country is a plain. Where are many rivers in
USA and the longest is Mississippi. The country has every variety of climates: from climate of the tropics to that of the Atlantic regions. The USA economy
grew greatly during the world wars. When big American monopolists got great profits.
The country is rich in mineral resources, heavy industry prevails in the USA economy, including mining metallurgical, machine building,
chemical industries. Light and food industries are wheel developed too.
The USA is the federate republic. The president is the heard of the state. He is also commander –in –chief of army and navy. The
highest legislative organ in the country is the congress, which consists of the senate and House of Representatives.
Holidays in Great Britain
There are some holidays in G.B. They are Christmas day, Boxing Day, new years day, Easter, mayday, spring bank holiday and simmer bank
holiday. Public holidays in G.B. are called bank holidays because the banks as wall as most of the offices and shops are closed. The most popular holiday is
Xmas. Every year the people of Norway give the city of London the present. It is a big Xmas tree and it stands in Trufalger square. Central streets are
beautifully decorated. Before Xmas groups of singers go from house to house. They collect money for charity and sing carols traditional Xmas songs. Many
churches hold a carol serves on the Sunday before Xmas. The fun starts the night before, on the 24 of December. This is the day when people decorate their
trees. Children hang stocking at the end of their beds, hoping that Santa Claus will come at night and full them with toys and sweets. Xmas is a family
holiday. Relatives’ prepare for the big Xmas dinner of turkey and Xmas pudding and every one gives and gets presents. The 26 of December, Boxing Day are an
extra holiday after Xmas. This is the time to meet friends or sit at home and watch TV. New years day is less popular in Britain then Xmas. Besides public
holidays there are some special holidays in Britain. One of them takes place on the 5 of November. On that day in 1605 Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the House of
Parliament and kill a King James the first. But he didn’t succeeded. The King’s man found the bomb and took Guy Fawkes to the tower. Sins what day the British
celebrate the 5 of November.
There are also smaller holidays in G.B.
Mike Lomonosov is the father of the Russian sciences and outstanding poet the founder of Russian literature. M.L. was born in 1711 in
Arhangelsk province. He liked to spend his time fishing with his father. He began to read him self then he was a little boy. He wanted to study and then he
was 19 he went on foot to Moscow. He decided to enter the Slavic-Greek-Lateen academy. He entered it and six ears later in 1736 he was sent abroad to
complete his studies in chemistry and mining. L worked hard and he became a great scientist. He was a physicist a painter and astronomer, a geographer a
historian and a states man. M.L. made a telescope; he observed a lot of stars and planets with his telescope. L wrote a first scientific grammar of Russian
language. He wrote many poems. L build a factory near Petersburg. It was a factory there glass was produced. He made a portrait of Peter the first of
pieces of glass. L was a founder of the first Russian University. This University is named after L and it is situated in Moscow. M.L was died in 1765
but people know and remember him.
Moscow is a capital of Russia, it’s political, economic, commercial and cultural center. It was founded 8 centuries age by Prince Yuri
Dolgoruky. Gradually the city becomes more and more powerful. In the 16th century Ivan the Terrible Moscow become the capital of the new united state.
Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometers. Population of the city is
over 8 million. Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The heart of the Moscow is Red Square. It is more historic associations than any
other place in Moscow. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become a symbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old
cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Grate, the Palace of Congress, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. There
are a lot of beautiful places, cathedrals, churches and monuments in Moscow. There are more then 80 museums in Moscow. The largest museums are Pushkin
Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery. Moscow is famous for it’s theaters. The best-known of the is Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theaters and
studios are also very popular. Moscow is a city of the students. There are over 80 higher educational institutions in it.
Cites of the USA
Amounts large and famous American cites are Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York. Washington is
the capital of the USA. It is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. D. Washington chose the place. The city was founded in 1791 and named
after the first president. Now Washington is the residents of the president and the congress. The center of the city is on Capital Hill. This building houses
both the senate and a House of Representatives. The White House is one of the oldest buildings in the city. It is the president’s residents. Washington is a
large scientific and cultural center. There are five universities in the city. The national academy of sciences and the library of congress are in Washington
too. The national museum, the old and new national galleries of art, Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln memorials are among the city sites.
New York is the largest city in USA. It is an economic, financial, scientific and cultural center. Dutch settlers founded the city in
17 century. The heart of the New York is Manhattan. It was hear that the Dutch built the first building of the town. The name Wall Street remained from our
days. The business center of New York is near Wall Street. Another famous street is Broadway. It is the longest and the widest street in New York. It is
the street there most famous theaters are situated. New York is the city of famous skyscrapers. The highest buildings are Impure State Building and the
united national building.